The StarCluster configuration file uses ini formatting. It is made up of various sections which are described here in detail. This document explains how to configure the three required sections [aws info], [keypair], and [cluster] as well as optional [global], [volume], [permission], and [plugin] sections.
The default starcluster config lives in ~/.starcluster/config. You can either create this file manually or have starcluster create it for you with an example configuration template (recommended).
To have StarCluster generate an example configuration file at the default config location (~/.starcluster/config), simply run “starcluster help” at the command-line. Provided that the configuration file does not exist, you will see the following:
$ starcluster help StarCluster - (http://star.mit.edu/cluster) Software Tools for Academics and Researchers (STAR) Please submit bug reports to email@example.com cli.py:475 - ERROR - Config file /home/user/.starcluster/config does not exist Options: --------  Show the StarCluster config template  Write config template to /home/user/.starcluster/config [q] Quit Please enter your selection:
Selecting 1 will print the example configuration file template to standard output.
Selecting 2 will write the configuration file template to ~/.starcluster/config
The configuration template provided by StarCluster should be ready to go out-of-the-box after filling in your Amazon Web Services credentials and setting up a keypair. This example config provides a simple cluster template called smallcluster that is set as the default cluster template.
If you wish to store your StarCluster config in a location other than the default (~/.starcluster/config), you will need to set the STARCLUSTER_CONFIG environment variable to point to your file:
$ export STARCLUSTER_CONFIG="/path/to/starcluster/config"
After doing so, all StarCluster commands will use the config identified by STARCLUSTER_CONFIG.
Alternatively, you can specify the global --config (-c) option with every StarCluster command you use. For example:
$ starcluster -c /path/to/starcluster/config listclusters
In either case, if the config didn’t exist at the specified path you would be prompted with the same menu above offering to generate a template at the specified path:
$ starcluster -c /path/to/nonexistent/config listclusters StarCluster - (http://star.mit.edu/cluster) Software Tools for Academics and Researchers (STAR) Please submit bug reports to firstname.lastname@example.org cli.py:475 - ERROR - Config file /path/to/nonexistent/config does not exist Options: --------  Show the StarCluster config template  Write config template to /path/to/nonexistent/config [q] Quit Please enter your selection:
The config can also be loaded from a web url, however, if you choose to do so you should be very careful not to publicly host AWS credentials, keys, and other private information:
$ starcluster -c http://localhost/starcluster.cfg listclusters
See also: Splitting the Config into Multiple Files
The first required section in the configuration file is [aws info]. This section specifies all of your AWS credentials. The following settings are required:
[aws info] # replace these with your AWS keys (required) aws_access_key_id = #your_aws_access_key_id aws_secret_access_key = #your_secret_access_key # these settings are optional and only used for creating new AMIs aws_user_id= #your userid ec2_cert = /path/to/your/ec2_cert.pem ec2_private_key = /path/to/your/ec2_pk.pem
All of the settings in the [aws info] section can be overridden by the environment. StarCluster will log a warning whenever it uses settings from the environment. For example:
$ export AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=your_aws_access_key_id $ export AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=your_secret_access_key $ starcluster listclusters *** WARNING - Setting 'AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY' from environment... *** WARNING - Setting 'AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID' from environment...
StarCluster uses the us-east-1 EC2 region by default. If you wish to permanently use a different EC2 region you will need to specify the following additional settings in your [aws info] section:
[aws info] aws_region_name = eu-west-1 aws_region_host = ec2.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com
Here aws_region_name is the name of the region you wish to use and aws_region_host is the region-specific EC2 endpoint host. Below is a table of EC2 region-specific endpoints:
The above table is only for convenience. In practice you should use the official list from Amazon instead.
StarCluster also supports quickly switching between EC2 regions via the command line without having to change your config. To switch regions at the command line use the global -r (–region) option:
$ starcluster -r us-west-1 listpublic
The above example runs the listpublic command in the us-west-1 region. Similarly, you will need to pass the global -r option to all of StarCluster’s commands in order to switch regions via the command line.
See also: Tips for Switching Regions
Switching S3 endpoints is usually not necessary. From amazon: Switching to a region-specific S3 endpoint is completely optional. The main advantage of doing so is to reduce the temporary latency you might experience immediately after creating a bucket in a specific region. This temporary latency typically lasts less than one hour.
StarCluster uses s3.amazonaws.com as the S3 endpoint by default. If you’d like to switch S3 endpoints you can do so by specifying an additional aws_s3_host setting in your [aws info] section:
[aws info] aws_region_name = us-west-1 aws_region_name = ec2.us-west-1.amazonaws.com aws_s3_host = s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com
Below is a table of S3 region-specific endpoints:
StarCluster can also be configured to use a proxy host when connecting to AWS by specifying the following settings in your [aws info] section:
aws_proxy - The name of the proxy host to use for connecting to AWS.
aws_proxy_port - The port number to use to connect to the proxy host.
aws_proxy_user - The user name to use when authenticating with proxy host.
aws_proxy_pass - The password to use when authenticating with proxy host.
StarCluster will use the settings above when creating the boto connection object used to communicate with AWS. Example:
[aws info] aws_proxy = your.proxyhost.com aws_proxy_port = 8080 aws_proxy_user = yourproxyuser aws_proxy_pass = yourproxypass
In addition to supplying your [aws info] you must also define at least one [keypair] section that represents one of your keypairs on Amazon EC2. Amazon EC2 keypairs are used by StarCluster to connect and configure your instances.
You should define a new [keypair] section for each Amazon EC2 keypair you wish to use with StarCluster. As an example, suppose we have two keypairs on Amazon EC2 that we wish to use with StarCluster named mykeypair1 and mykeypair2 on Amazon.
If you do not know the name of your keypair(s), use StarCluster’s listkeypairs command to obtain a list of your current EC2 keypairs. The [keypair] section name must match the name of the keypair on Amazon EC2.
To configure StarCluster for these keypairs we define a [keypair] section for each of them in the configuration file:
[keypair mykeypair1] # this is the path to your openssh private key for mykeypair4 key_location=/path/to/your/mykeypair1.rsa [keypair mykeypair3] # this is the path to your openssh private key for mykeypair2 key_location=/path/to/your/mykeypair2.rsa
These keypair sections can now be referenced in a cluster template’s keyname setting as we’ll show below in an example cluster template.
In order for StarCluster to interact with any instances you have on EC2, the keypair used to launch those instances must be defined in the config. You can check what keypairs were used to launch an instance using StarCluster’s listinstances command or the AWS web console.
In order to launch StarCluster(s) on Amazon EC2, you must first provide a cluster template that contains all of the configuration for the cluster. A cluster template is simply a [cluster] section in the config. Once a cluster template has been defined, you can launch multiple StarClusters from it. Below is an example cluster template called smallcluster which defines a 2-node cluster using m1.small EC2 instances and the mykeypair1 keypair we defined above:
[cluster smallcluster] keyname = mykeypair1 cluster_size = 2 cluster_user = sgeadmin cluster_shell = bash master_image_id = ami-0330d16a master_instance_type = m1.small node_image_id = ami-0330d16a node_instance_type = m1.small
The table below describes all required and optional settings for a cluster template in detail.
|keyname||Yes||The keypair to use for the cluster (the keypair must be defined in a [keypair] section)|
|cluster_size||Yes||Number of nodes in the cluster (including master)|
|node_image_id||Yes||The AMI to use for worker nodes|
|node_instance_type||Yes||The instance type for worker nodes|
|cluster_user||No||The cluster user to create (defaults to sgeadmin)|
|cluster_shell||No||Sets the cluster user’s shell (default: bash, options: bash, zsh, csh, ksh, tcsh)|
|dns_prefix||No||If True, prefixes the dns name of nodes with the cluster tag. For example: master –> mycluster-master|
|master_image_id||No||The AMI to use for the master node. (defaults to node_image_id)|
|master_instance_type||No||The instance type for the master node. (defaults to node_instance_type)|
|userdata_scripts||No||List of userdata scripts to use when launching instances|
|volumes||No||List of EBS volumes to attach and NFS-share to the cluster (each volume must be defined in a [volume] section)|
|plugins||No||List of StarCluster plugins to use when launching the cluster (each plugin must be defined in a [plugin] section)|
|permissions||No||List of permissions to apply to the cluster’s security group (each permission must be defined in a [permission] section)|
|userdata_scripts||No||List of user data scripts to run on boot for each instance in the cluster|
|spot_bid||No||Always use spot instances with this cluster template|
|force_spot_master||No||When requesting a spot cluster this setting forces the master node to also be a spot instance (default is for master not to be a spot instance for stability)|
|availability_zone||No||Launch all cluster instances in a single availability zone (defaults to any available zone)|
|disable_queue||No||Disables the setup and configuration of the Open Grid Scheduler (OGS, formerly SGE)|
|disable_cloudinit||No||Do not use cloudinit for cluster accounting (only required if using non- cloudinit enabled AMIs)|
|subnet_id||No||The VPC subnet to use when launching cluster instances|
Automatically assign public IP addresses to all VPC cluster instances. Default is False.
WARNING: Enabling public IPs exposes your VPC cluster nodes to the internet which may not be desirable. This option also requires a special VPC configuration - see Connecting to a VPC Cluster
From Amazon’s VPC page:
“Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) lets you provision a logically isolated section of the Amazon Web Services (AWS) Cloud where you can launch AWS resources in a virtual network that you define. You have complete control over your virtual networking environment, including selection of your own IP address range, creation of subnets, and configuration of route tables and network gateways.”
New AWS accounts use VPC by default via the default VPC and StarCluster supports this configuration without user intervention. However, users that wish to launch clusters in a non-default VPC must also provide the subnet_id setting in their cluster template(s):
[cluster smallcluster] keyname = mykeypair1 cluster_size = 2 node_image_id = ami-0330d16a node_instance_type = m1.small subnet_id = subnet-99999999
Alternatively, users can specify or override the subnet ID at runtime via the --subnet-id (-N) option to the start command:
$ starcluster start -N subnet-88888888 mycluster
By default StarCluster does not automatically assign a public IP address to all VPC cluster instances which means you must be on a machine within the VPC in order to successfully create, connect, and configure a cluster in the VPC - otherwise StarCluster will hang indefinitely trying to connect to the nodes. StarCluster does not assign public IPs by default for two reasons:
Specifically, your non-default VPC must have:
StarCluster will raise a validation error if public IPs are requested and these requirements are not met. Assuming you’re aware of the risks and have configured your VPC as mentioned above you can enable public IP addresses by setting public_ips=True in your cluster config:
Enabling public IPs means that all VPC cluster nodes will be accessible from the internet which may not be desirable depending on your network/security requirements.
[cluster smallcluster] keyname = mykeypair1 cluster_size = 2 node_image_id = ami-0330d16a node_instance_type = m1.small subnet_id = subnet-99999999 public_ips = True
This configuration will launch a cluster in a non-default VPC subnet and automatically assign a public IP address to all VPC cluster instances. You can also enable public IPs using the --public-ips option to the start command:
$ starcluster start -N subnet-88888888 --public-ips mycluster
The --public-ips option only applies to non-default VPC clusters - this option is not needed for clusters using the default VPC or EC2 classic. Both the default VPC and EC2 classic assign public IPs automatically.
Once public IPs have been enabled you can launch a cluster inside the VPC from a machine (e.g. your laptop) outside the VPC.
You are not limited to defining just one cluster template. StarCluster allows you to define multiple independent cluster templates by simply creating a new [cluster] section with all of the same settings (different values of course).
However, you may find that defining new cluster templates is some what repetitive with respect to redefining the same settings over and over. To remedy this situation, StarCluster allows cluster templates to extend other cluster templates:
[cluster mediumcluster] # Declares that this cluster uses smallcluster's settings as defaults extends = smallcluster # this rest of this section is identical to smallcluster except for the following settings: keyname = mykeypair2 node_instance_type = c1.xlarge cluster_size = 8 volumes = biodata2
In the example above, mediumcluster will use all of smallcluster‘s settings as defaults. All other settings in the mediumcluster template override these defaults. For the mediumcluster template above, we can see that mediumcluster is the same as smallcluster except for its keyname, node_instance_type, cluster_size, and volumes settings.
StarCluster allows you to specify a default cluster template to be used when using the start command. This is useful for users that mostly use a single cluster template. To define a default cluster template, define a [global] section and configure the default_template setting:
[global] default_template = smallcluster
The above example sets the smallcluster cluster template as the default.
If you do not specify a default cluster template in the config you will have to specify one at the command line using the --cluster-template (-c) option.
Using EBS volumes with StarCluster is completely optional, however, if you do not use an EBS volume with StarCluster, any data that you wish to keep around after shutdown must be manually copied somewhere outside of the cluster (e.g. download the data locally or move it to S3 manually). This is because local instance storage on EC2 is ephemeral and does not persist after an instance has been terminated. The advantage of using EBS volumes with StarCluster is that when you shutdown a particular cluster, any data saved on an EBS volume attached to that cluster will be available the next time the volume is attached to another cluster or EC2 instance.
StarCluster has the ability to use Amazon EBS volumes to provide persistent data storage on a given cluster. If you wish to use EBS volumes with StarCluster you will need to define a [volume] section in the configuration file for each volume you wish to use with StarCluster and then add this [volume] section name to a cluster template‘s volumes setting.
To configure an EBS volume for use with Starcluster, define a new [volume] section for each EBS volume. For example, suppose we have two volumes we’d like to use: vol-c9999999 and vol-c8888888. Below is an example configuration for these volumes:
[volume myvoldata1] # this is the Amazon EBS volume id volume_id=vol-c9999999 # the path to mount this EBS volume on # (this path will also be nfs shared to all nodes in the cluster) mount_path=/home [volume myvoldata2] volume_id=vol-c8888888 mount_path=/scratch [volume myvoldata2-alternate] # same volume as myvoldata2 but uses 2nd partition instead of 1st volume_id=vol-c8888888 mount_path=/scratch2 partition=2
StarCluster by default attempts to mount either the entire drive or the first partition in the volume onto the master node. It is possible to use a different partition by configuring a partition setting in your [volume] section as in the myvoldata2-alternate example above.
After defining one or more [volume] sections, you then need to add them to a cluster template in order to use them. To do this, specify the [volume] section name(s) in the volumes setting in one or more of your cluster templates. For example, to use both myvoldata1 and myvoldata2 from the above example in a cluster template called smallcluster:
[cluster smallcluster] volumes = myvoldata1, myvoldata2
Now any time a cluster is started using the smallcluster template, myvoldata1 will be mounted to /home on the master, myvoldata2 will be mounted to /scratch on the master, and both /home and /scratch will be NFS-shared to the rest of the cluster nodes.
See the Using EBS Volumes for Persistent Storage documentation to learn how to use StarCluster to easily create, format, and configure new EBS volumes.
When starting a cluster each node is added to a common security group. This security group is created by StarCluster and has a name of the form @sc-<cluster_tag> where <cluster_tag> is the name you provided to the start command.
By default, StarCluster adds a permission to this security group that allows access to port 22 (ssh) from all IP addresses. This is needed so that StarCluster can connect to the instances and configure them properly. If you want to specify additional security group permissions to be set after starting your cluster you can do so in the config by creating one or more [permission] sections. These sections can then be specified in one or more cluster templates. Here’s an example that opens port 80 (web server) to the world for the smallcluster template:
[permission www] # open port 80 to the world from_port = 80 to_port = 80 [permission ftp] # open port 21 only to a single ip from_port = 21 to_port = 21 cidr_ip = 18.104.22.168/32 [permission myrange] # open all ports in the range 8000-9000 to the world from_port = 8000 to_port = 9000 [cluster smallcluster] permissions = www, ftp, myrange
A permission section specifies a port range to open to a given network range (cidr_ip). By default, the network range is set to 0.0.0.0/0 which represents any ip address (i.e. the “world”). In the above example, we created a permission section called www that opens port 80 to the “world” by setting the from_port and to_port both to be 80. You can restrict the ip addresses that the rule applies to by specifying the proper cidr_ip setting. In the above example, the ftp permission specifies that only 22.214.171.124 ip address can access port 21 on the cluster nodes.
StarCluster also has support for user contributed plugins (see Plugin System). To configure a cluster template to use a particular plugin, we must first create a plugin section for each plugin we wish to use. For example, suppose we have two plugins myplug1 and myplug2:
[plugin myplug1] setup_class = myplug1.SetupClass myplug1_arg_one = 2 [plugin myplug2] setup_class = myplug2.SetupClass myplug2_arg_one = 3
In this example, myplug1_arg_one and myplug2_arg_one are arguments to the plugin’s setup_class. The argument names were made up for this example. The names of a plugin’s arguments in general depends on the plugin being used. Some plugins may not even have arguments.
After you’ve defined some [plugin] sections, you can reference them in a cluster template like so:
[cluster mediumcluster] # Declares that this cluster uses smallcluster's settings as defaults extends = smallcluster # the rest is identical to smallcluster except for the following settings: keyname = mykeypair2 node_instance_type = c1.xlarge cluster_size = 8 volumes = biodata2 plugins = myplug1, myplug2
Notice the added plugins setting for the mediumcluster template. This setting instructs StarCluster to first run the myplug1 plugin and then the myplug2 plugin afterwards. Reversing myplug1/myplug2 in the plugins setting in the above example would reverse the order of execution.
Learn more about the Plugin System
In some cases you may wish to split your configuration file into separate files for convenience. For example, you may wish to organize all keypairs, cluster templates, permissions, volumes, etc. into separate files to make it easier to access the relevant settings without browsing the entire config all at once. To do this, simply create a new set of files and put the relevant config sections into the files:
The following list of files are just examples. You are free to create any number of files, name them anything you want, and distribute any of the sections in the config to these files in any way you see fit. The only exception is that the [global] section must live in either the default config $HOME/.starcluster/config or the config specified by the global --config (-c) command line option.
[aws info] aws_access_key_id = #your_aws_access_key_id aws_secret_access_key = #your_secret_access_key [key mykey1] key_location=/path/to/key1 [key mykey2] key_location=/path/to/key2
[cluster smallcluster] cluster_size = 5 keyname = mykey1 node_image_id = ami-99999999 [cluster largecluster] extends = smallcluster cluster_size = 50 node_image_id = ami-88888888
[key mykey] key_location=/path/to/key
Then define the files in the config using the include setting in the [global] section of the default StarCluster config (~/.starcluster/config):
[global] include = ~/.starcluster/awskeys, ~/.starcluster/clusters, ~/.starcluster/vols
The files in the above example could also be loaded from the web. Let’s say we’ve hosted, for example, the cluster templates in ~/.starcluster/clusters on an http server at the url: http://myhost/cluster.cfg. To load these cluster templates from the web we just add the web address(es) to the list of includes:
[global] include = ~/.starcluster/keys, http://myhost/cluster.cfg, ~/.starcluster/vols
Notice in the above example we only load the cluster templates from the web. The aws credentials, keypairs, volumes, etc. will all be loaded locally in this case.
StarCluster also supports loading the default config containing the [global] section from the web:
$ starcluster -c http://myhost/sc.cfg listvolumes
If you choose to load the default config from the web it’s recommended that only a [global] section is defined that includes configs either locally, from the web, or both. It’s also important
All examples in this section use us-west-1 as the target region. You should replace us-west-1 in these examples with your target region. Also, you do not need to pass the global --region (-r) flag if you’ve configured your [aws info] section to permanently use the target region.
In general, keypairs, AMIs, and EBS Volumes are all region-specific and must be recreated or migrated before you can use them in an alternate region. To create a new keypair in the target region, use the createkey command while passing the global --region (-r) flag:
$ starcluster -r us-west-1 createkey -o ~/.ssh/uswestkey.rsa myuswestkey
The above example creates a new keypair called myuswestkey in the us-west-1 region and stores the key file in ~/.ssh/uswestkey.rsa. Once you’ve created a new keypair in the target region you must define the new keypair in the config. For the above us-west-1 example:
[key myuswestkey] KEY_LOCATION = ~/.ssh/uswestkey.rsa
Similarly you can obtain a list of available StarCluster AMIs in the target region using:
$ starcluster -r us-west-1 listpublic
Finally, to (optionally) create new EBS volumes in the target region:
$ starcluster -r us-west-1 createvolume -n myuswestvol 10 us-west-1a
Given that a cluster template references these region-specific items you must either override the relevant settings at the command line using the start command’s option flags or create separate cluster templates configured for each region you use. To override the relevant settings at the command line:
$ starcluster -r us-west-1 start -k myuswestkey -n ami-99999999
If you often use multiple regions you will most likely want to create separate cluster templates for each region by extending a common template, smallcluster for example, and overriding the relevant settings:
[key myuswestkey] KEY_LOCATION = ~/.ssh/uswestkey.rsa [volume myuswestvol] VOLUME_ID = vol-99999999 MOUNT_PATH = /data [cluster uswest-cluster] EXTENDS = smallcluster KEYNAME = uswestkey # The AMI must live in the target region! NODE_IMAGE_ID = ami-9999999 VOLUMES = myuswestvol
The above example extends the default cluster template smallcluster and overrides the relevant settings needed for the target region.
With the above template defined you can use the start command’s -c (–cluster-template) option to use the new region-specific template to easily create a new cluster in the target region:
$ starcluster -r us-west-1 start -c uswest-cluster mywestcluster